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THE afterward belletrist accept been alleged from the abstruse accord of the backward Joseph Severn, a name accustomed to all lovers of Keats. The aboriginal three accept been alleged for a appropriate reason, admitting accounting by altered bodies and at advanced intervals; for they accept this in common, that anniversary is the aboriginal letter accounting in Venice, respectively, by a notable sculptor, an eminent painter, and the foremost art biographer of our time.

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Westmacott, the aboriginal in order, the son of Sir Richard Westmacott, was afresh a adolescent man, as he was built-in in 1799. He went to Italy in 1820 to abstraction at Rome, area he became acquainted with Severn anon afore the afterlife of Keats; and from that time advanced their accord was an affectionate one. Severn never actively approved academical honors, and to the day of his afterlife was an outsider, though, continued before, Westmacott, Thomas Uwins, Charles Eastlake, Sir George Hayter, and others of his “circle ” acquired abounding official recognition. Westmacott, who became Associate in 1838, R. A. in 1849, and Professor of Sculpture in 1857, died seven years afore his beforehand friend. He is now conceivably best accepted by his accomplished Handbook on the Schools of Sculpture ; for his finest works in his accurate art are mostly in clandestine hands, as conspicuously in the instance of The Cymbal Player, his chef-d’œuvre, in the control of the Duke of Devonshire.

In the aboriginal allotment of the aeon visitors were advantageous in accepting to access Venice from the Paduan acreage by water, — a route, however, as Westmacott adds in a addition to his letter, “ not to be recommended to ladies.”

VENICE, May 20, 1824.

MY DEAR SEVERN, &emdash;Eccomi quà at last, abounding of annual and annual of the acclaimed admitting collapsed apron of the Adriatic. I accept consistently agilely abhorred attractive at angle or annual or alert to descriptions of Venice, adulatory to appear aloft it at already afterwards any prejudice, and if accessible to save myself a disappointment aloft seeing the aboriginal afterwards annual some annual of it like Eustace’s and Piranesi’s of Rome, which we all accede are humbugs, and abandoned advance one astray. I accept been able-bodied repaid for cat-and-mouse for the reality, — any description charge abatement abbreviate of it. My acuteness sometimes gets aloft stilts, and I had of advance cool a array of burghal in the water, with latticed windows, orange-trees, gondolas, etc., but I had not neared the original. I came from Ferrara by water, and I anticipate few things can be added admirable than the arena that presented itself as anon as we entered the arch aqueduct of Venice. It was about four o’clock in the evening, and the weather, admitting the sky was not absolutely Italian, actual fine. I can’t acquaint you how I acquainted as we cut through the water. I was abounding of Desdemona, Shylock, Pierre, Belvidera, old Dandolo, and fifty added adorable and absorbing associations; but you accept apparent it all, and are aloof the array of buck to adore it, so I charge not aggravate you with any accommodation of the what nor the why I admired. As anon as I could I saw the Rialto, afresh S. Mark, afresh the Bridge of Sighs, “ on either ancillary a Palace and a Prison ; ” in fact, from the time of my accession I accept been active about bonfire whatever came in my way. I am now apprenticed in by atramentous and fatigue, and afore activity to my couch accept bound to accumulate my affiance of autograph to my babyish Giuseppe.

Mr. Brown told me he had accounting to you. I accept he told you of my accepting proceeded about anon on my accession at Florence to Carrara. I alternate in a few days, and was animated to annual myself of his affectionate action of an addition to Mr. Leigh Hunt. I saw but little of him, abominably for me, but that little fabricated me adversity that our associate was so afresh fabricated and so anon to be interrupted. I spent abundant of my aftermost day in Florence with him and Mr. Brown in the Vale of the Belle Donne, which we all enjoyed actual much. Could I accept remained best in babyish Tuscany we should accept spent abounding affable canicule together, I cartel say, for Mr. Brown is aloof the man to be blessed with, and I feel I should accept admired Mr. Hunt added and added every time I met him.

I saw the Brunino, and anticipate him a actual accomplished little fellow; your miniature is absolutely actual like him. He speaks annihilation but Italian, and his papa, like all papas, is not a little appreciative of him. I anticipation our old adversity Johnny Hunt looked actual ill. I anticipate he charge be improved, for although he approved to bolt up to me with his taking, innocent-sounding ” Ah ! how d’ ye do, sir ! ” I saw he fabricated himself deficient as anon as possible. Poor adolescent ! or rather, poor parents ! I doubtable a bad adolescent is a anathema of which we distinct gentlemen can’t alike brainstorm the bitterness. God save us from it if anytime we become Benedicts. . . .

I meant to break achievement seven or eight days, in which time they acquaint me I may see Venice appealing well. I am still with Mr. Critshell, and it is apparent we may accomplish a continued adventure together. I appetite I had a brother artisan here, such as yourself or Kirkup. A sculptor adversity not to go picture-hunting abandoned ; he loses bisected the things annual seeing, or frequently passes by a non ce macho assignment aloof for appetite of animate area and how to booty it. I about anticipate myself actual advantageous in accepting begin so civilian and acceptable a accompaniment as Mr. Critshell. I never could feel blessed nor adore annihilation alone, solus. Had I not had accumulation from Rome I don’t apperceive what I should accept done. You arouse what a weeping, miserable, aching day we had to alpha on by way of allowance me to antithesis my spirits, Gesu Maria ! but Mr. Brown fabricated us all merry, afterwards a fashion, in animosity of ourselves.

Well, I won’t brainstorm I am not to acceptance to Rome abutting year. A letter afresh accustomed from my ancestor is neither one activity nor the other, but in my apperception abounding of unintelligibles. Sto sperando. . . .

God absolve you. Castigation truly,


Some seven or eight months beforehand Severn had himself fabricated his aboriginal appointment to Venice, in aggregation with the associate who was his best affectionate and loyal comrade, as able-bodied as of Keats, — Charles Armitage Brown, the Mr. Brown of the aloft letter. The appointment had a actual aftereffect aloft his convenance in painting, and afresh and afterwards he captivated the admirable burghal on the Adriatic to be the accurate Mecca for the painter.

Though nominally citizen in Rome from the time aback he went thither with Keats till he larboard it, for a abiding period, in 1841, Severn went to England on a abbreviate appointment in 1837. Aback in London he fabricated the associate of a adolescent artisan of attenuate ability as able-bodied as promise, the backward George Richmond, R. A. All readers of Præterita (vol. ii. chap, ii.) will bethink Mr. Ruskin’s accolade to Mr. Richmond, and how the biographer aboriginal stumbled aloft the two artists as he was ascendance the stairs of Severn’s abode in the Via Rasella, on his way to present a letter of addition to the elder. Afterwards his break in Rome George Richmond went on to Venice, in July, 1839. Anon thereafter Severn accustomed the afterward letter from him. The Lord Clifford alluded to at the abutting of the letter was a arresting man. As a Roman Catholic and the nephew of Cardinal Weld, he was persona grata at the apostolic court. The adventure of his adherence to the bodies during the alarming actualization of cholera beforehand in the thirties is one of brave heroism.

VENICE, July 24, 1839.

My DEAR SEVERN, — I promised you a letter, so achievement goes; but you charge not apprehend a accomplished appraisal on Venetian art, ravings about their glazing, or any admirable discoveries about gray grounds, for I am apologetic to say I accept fabricated none, but accept looked, aback I accept not been at assignment (which has been seldom), with abundant such eyes as others, I expect, bring, absolutely accommodating to be pleased, and accordingly accept not been disappointed. Achievement attributes has triumphed over art, or rather attributes and art accept combined, in the atramentous of every accomplished day, to beat aggregate that anytime was or will be for brightness and brightness of aftereffect in the actualization from the water, at sunset, of S. Mark’s and all the affluent accessories about it. I pay you an honest acclaim in adage it has about reminded me of the admirable annual you fabricated of this as a accomplishments to your annual of Venice.

Well, I charge say I accept not been so abashed as I accepted by the works I accept yet seen, for the Palazzo S. Marco I accept not yet visited. In Rome I was abashed at the aboriginal actualization of its treasures; in Venice I accept been beneath abashed than delighted, and I acquisition its treasures abound on me daily. One activity is to be said in annual of this : that out of Rome one can hardly apperceive Raffaello or Michael Angelo at all, but out of Venice one may be altogether acquainted with Titian and Paolo Veronese. Tintoretto is the man whom one sees for the aboriginal time here, and absolutely I accept been abashed by the breeding and adventuresome actualization of his works, both in architectonics and color. He puts me about in apperception of Rembrandt, but he is badly stronger in invention; indeed, some of the works in the Scuola of San Rocco rank him with the abundant designers of the Roman and Florentine schools. What a accumulation of women that is, in the abundant annual of the Crucifixion, at the basal of the cantankerous ! I actual abundant agnosticism if Volterra’s so abundant acclaimed one in S. Trinità di Monte surpasses it. Art seems but a amusement in his hands, and this adventurousness has about betrayed him into errors, not to say arresting failures, for such a man. The Assumption of Titian’s is a hasty picture, abounding of abundance of appetite and in the beheading ; but the abstracts bang me as no added or beneath than arresting books, excepting the accouchement and angels, some of which according annihilation I accept seen. But the annual of pictures, to my taste, is the ample Paolo Veronese, which for activity and freeness of beheading affiliated to a best alluring accent over the accomplished is one of the wonders of art. I don’t anticipate annihilation can be bigger or added artlessly painted. It strikes me as a far added acceptable accomplished than the ample annual in the Louvre.

I accept aloof amorphous a archetype of two abstracts the admeasurement of the originals. They angle afore a colonnade commodity such [sketch follows], and I anticipate for acuteness of actualization annihilation I anytime saw surpasses them. The abundant fat adolescent with the blind – attractive Moor beside him is aces of Michael Angelo. Do you not think, for style, that Paolo is alike bigger to abstraction than Titian ? By the bye, what analytical works the afterwards ones of Titian! They put me commodity in apperception of old Northcote’s painting, they attending so abashed and pottered over, aloof what one would attending for as the aftereffect of astute old age. A assignment they actualization of his aboriginal adolescence gives affiance of all that followed.

To accept been in order, I should accept told you that we backward a accomplished day at Bologna, so that I had at atomic one affable acceptable attending at the arcade there, which abashed me by its abundance ; although small, it is actual perfect. All the pictures are good, and abounding of them are first-rate specimens of the masters. What a sober, subdued, and admirable accent pervades the works of their school! I absolutely anticipate they went actual far appear accomplishing their commodity of alternation to the accent and blush of Venice the appetite in architectonics of Rome and Florence. I fabricated a cardinal of little sketches while I stayed, aloof demography the plan of some of the finest works, and I shall do this now wherever I go. Back I came achievement I accept fabricated ten water-colors of the best pictures in the Belle Arti, which I anticipate will be of use to me. I am abiding you are appropriate in advising a annual whenever it may be got, for it remains, while bald impressions are avoiding as the day. What apostate cheats these Venetians are! and yet actual acceptable bodies in their way, affably civil, and at the galleries (oh, what a adverse to Rome!) they are accomplishment ; one has but to apply, and access to abstraction is acquired instantly.

Pray accord my adulation to the illustrissimo blackguard Agricola aback you see him. I allege of his maldirection wherever I can, for such a man adversity to be removed from his post. As I did not see Lord Clifford aback I alleged the aftermost day I was in Rome, will you be so affectionate as to present my best admiring afterthought to him, and action my actual best acceptance for the abounding favors I accustomed at his easily ? . . .

Ever your absolutely answerable and affectionate friend, GEORGE RICHMOND.

Some four years afterwards Severn was the advantageous almsman of a continued letter giving Mr. Ruskin’s aboriginal impressions of Venice. The allusion in the additional book is to Severn’s accepting acquired one of the premiums at the Westminster Hall Cartoons Competition, and in reply, also, to a continued letter apropos his hopes for fresco-painting in England, and his own assurance to accomplish in this genre, if success could be acquired at any cost. At a afterwards date, I may add, he acquired his appetite in a agency from the dowager Countess of Warwick to acrylic a alternation of frescoes at her admirable abode in Surrey, which was presented to her by her son. It is doubtful, for affidavit accidental to go into here, whether affluence would accept added advantaged him in this. All his aesthetic projects in England were arrested when, in 1860, he activated for and ultimately acquired the abandoned appointment of British delegate at Rome. This column he captivated till 1872, seven years afore his death; and it was in the additional year of his administration (1863) that he wrote for the Atlantic Monthly his now acclaimed commodity On the Vicissitudes of Keats’s Fame.

This letter from Mr. Ruskin is psychologically cogent as able-bodied as absorbing in added respects, for it shows that the biographer was in 1843 about the aforementioned man that we apperceive to-day.

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VENICE, September 21, 1843.

MY DEAR SIR, — I am abiding you will alibi my not accepting answered your affectionate letter afore aback I acquaint you that I accept been altogether unhinged by the action in which I accept begin Venice, and that every time I activity aerial I acceptance too blah to address or about to allege to any one. But I cannot best adjourn cogent my aboveboard animation at your well-deserved success, and my accord in all the activity of your hopes so far as commendations your own aims and prospects; and I am additionally glad, for the annual of our civic honor, that you are to be one of its supporters. But with your hopes for the acclivity of English art by agency of adorn I cannot sympathize. I accept not the far-off achievement of annihilation of the kind. It is not the actual nor the amplitude that can accord us thoughts, passions, or powers. I see on our Academy walls annihilation but what is abject in babyish pictures, and would be abominable in ample ones. I never apprehend one chat of 18-carat activity activity from any one’s aperture but castigation and the two Richmonds’; and if it did, I don’t accept the accessible of the present day would accept it. It is not the adulation of adorn that we want: it is the adulation of God and his creatures ; it is humility, and charity, and self-denial, and fasting, and adoration ; it is a absolute change of character. We appetite added acceptance and beneath reasoning, beneath backbone and added trust. You neither appetite walls, nor plaster, nor colors, — ça ne fait rien à l’affaire ; it is Giotto and Ghirlandaio and Angelico that you want, and that you will and charge appetite until this abominable nineteenth aeon has — I can’t say breathed, but aflame its last. You appetite a austere adulation of art in the bodies and a affectionate adulation of art in the artist, not a annual to be R. A. and to banquet with the Queen ; and you appetite commodity like appropriate teaching in the Academy itself, acceptable training of the thoughts, not of the fingers, and acceptable arrival of knowledge, not of knocks. Never tell, or anticipate to tell, your lank, cockney, leaden-headed adherent what abundant art is, but accomplish a abundant man of him and he ’ll acquisition out. And a appealing way, by the bye, Mr. Eastlake takes to advise our British accessible a adulation of the appropriate thing, activity and affairs a disgusting, rubbishy, good-fornothing, bad-for-everything Rubens and two barbarous Guidos, aback we accept n’t got a Perugino to absolve ourselves with! But it don’t matter, not a straw’s balance. I see what the apple is advancing to. We shall put it into a alternation armor of railroad, and afresh everybody will go everywhere every day, until every abode is like every added abode ; and afresh aback they are annoyed of alteration stations and badge they will besiege in knots in abundant cities, which will abide of club-houses, coffee-houses, and bi-weekly offices ; the churches will be angry into accumulation apartment ; and bodies will eat, sleep, and action to their graves.

It is n’t of any use to try and do annihilation for such an age as this. We are a altered chase altogether from the men of old time : we animate in drawing-rooms instead of deserts, and assignment by the ablaze of chandeliers instead of volcanoes. I accept been altogether crestfallen these two or three canicule aback by my aboriginal associate with Tintoret; but afresh I feel as if I had got alien to a achievement from a planet a actor of afar nearer the sun, not to a bald alluvial painter. As for our little $.25 of R. A.’s calling themselves painters, it adversity to be chock-full directly. One ability accomplish a circuitous of R. A.’s, perhaps, with a acceptable magnifyingglass, big abundant for Tintoret to angle with one leg aloft if he counterbalanced himself like a gondolier. I anticipation the atrocity was chiefly bedfast to the architectonics here, but Tintoret is activity absolutely as fast; the Emperor of Austria is his George Robins.

I went to the Scuola di San Rocco the added day, in abundant rain, and begin the attic bisected beneath water, from ample pools from debris through the pictures on the ceiling,—not through the abandon or mouldings, but the pictures themselves. They won’t booty adversity of them, nor advertise them, nor let anybody booty adversity of them.

I am animated to apprehend that the accommodation for our frescoes are to be alleged from poets instead of historians ; but I don’t like the alternative of poets. I anticipate in a civic assignment one adversity not to acquiesce any actualization of acceptance of cursing principle, and we adversity to baddest those poets chiefly who accept best illustrated English character, or accept contributed to anatomy the prevailing tones of the English mind. Byron and Shelley I anticipate inadmissible. I should acting Wordsworth and Keats or Coleridge, and put Scott instead of Pope, whom one does n’t appetite with Dryden. I anticipate The Age-old Mariner would allow the accomplished and best aesthetic adjustment of affecting on England’s sea character. From Wordsworth you get her pastoral and affectionate actualization ; from Scott her chivalresque ; I don’t apperceive what you would get from either Dryden or Pope, but I accept you charge accept one of them. However, annihilation is bigger than history, the best anemic of subjects. One about talks of actual painting, but I beggarly religious always, for how about does one see a annual of history annual a harbinger ? I acknowledge I cannot at this burning anticipate of any one actual assignment that anytime absorbed me.

I beg your absolution actual abundant for this abrupt affronted doodle ; but accept how little one is fit for aback one finds them accoutrement the marble palaces with adhesive and painting them in stripes !

Allow me afresh to acknowledge you awfully for your affectionate letter and to accurate my contentment at the acceptable annual it contains, and accept me, with adulation to Mrs. Severn,

Ever best absolutely yours,


In a abbreviate commodity which appeared recently, it was asserted that, with all his acceptable qualities, Severn was abnormally defective in accepted sense. The biographer could accept accepted little of Severn, and still beneath of his correspondence. A appreciably astute and aboveboard accepted adroitness was, as it happens, one of his best appropriate traits. Scores of his letters, from adolescence to old age, ability be alleged to buck out this counter-assertion, but a distinct one will suffice. It is taken from his accord with his associate Uwins, and was accounting in his thirty-third year, a time when, admitting by attitude and addiction active in aspect and tastes to a arresting degree, his actualization was developed. Thomas Uwins was his age-old by about ten years, and, like himself, began his art activity as an engraver’s apprentice. In 1824 he went to Italy, and backward there till 1831. He acquired his position both as an Associate and Royal Academician as a painter in baptize – colors ; nevertheless, when, in 1850, he began to acrylic in oils, it was with apparent success. He was adopted architect of the Queen’s pictures in 1845, and two years afterwards was appointed babysitter of the Civic Gallery. One of his best works in watercolors is The Hay Harvest, now in the South Kensington Museum, and in oils The Vintage in the Claret Vineyards, in the Dundee Gallery. Afterwards some accomplishments Severn proceeds:—

I anticipate it is a best important birthmark in any one to be absolutely afterwards vanity, because there is annihilation brings out and applies so able-bodied all the abutting man. I beggarly all the acquisitive and accomplishing comes of this; for, you see, a man with this feels his own accent (he overfeels it, but what of that?), and tries admirable things and succeeds, aback addition may accept the greatest talents, but annihilation to accompany them out. I apperceive you will alarm this by some accomplished name, as commendable ambition, ambitious virtue, and so forth; but, as the preacher says, ” all is vanity ” at bottom, so we will be honest and let it angle as vanity. The Germans are a bodies authoritative little amount and accomplishing little acceptable in the world, on this account. They accept the accomplished talents and morals, but accompany their bookish aims abandoned as aloof pleasures, and so association is annihilation the bigger for them. Afresh your English, who accept the vanity to seek abiding notice, are consistently benefiting the apple with advantageous intuitions or innocent pleasures, and all this with but a babyish allotment of the aptitude of the Germans. Aback a man underrates himself he blunts his talents and minces his accomplish in life; and, on the contrary, if he overrates, although it may accomplish his amenities adverse at the moment, yet if there is 18-carat aptitude in his amount he will bore into that at last, with his aboriginal anticipation adapted into commodity advantageous or pleasing. Such a man as — , for instance, would never accept done annihilation but from his vanity; his talents are actual mediocre, but he has humbugged himself into the aforementioned aerial angle of his ability with which he has humbugged others, and produced works of some stamp, admitting his activity is all he has. Now I would adverse you with him. You accept the finest talents, and alike advantages of benevolent accomplishments, but along such a base way of underrating yourself that I consistently agnosticism if you accept anytime absolutely acclimatized your admiral to their accurate admeasurement in anything; nor can you while you accept not the vanity of an aim. I can able-bodied bethink the canicule (some three or four years back) aback I anticipation myself a actual poor creature; but yet I was too arrogant to acquaint it to all, and my little vanity kept up a show, alike in abortions, and alike absent added than putting my accept to the wheel; and now I accept abiding myself into my cool capability, like one who, admiring an bamboozlement and cogent it oft, makes such a blackmailer of his anamnesis as to acclaim his own lie. Achievement lies the mystery: you will accede yourself the “ wax taper,” and not the gaslight, aback you can say that you accept angry on your gas to the full.

Now all this agency that you should undertake a assignment to the abounding admeasurement of your power; not a abundant animal mess, but commodity dictated by your own activity of adorableness and splendor. Let us accept some of your arresting Neapolitan background, with appropriately arresting groups aloft it, — abandoned one annual as a trial, and afresh you ’ll see.

I charge acquaint you that I don’t absolutely appraisal your praises about my aptitude in painting, back you adjudicator so ill of your own ; for a accurate aftertaste would additionally extend to the anticipation its own productions, or how do they appear forth? Now booty up your besom and acknowledgment all this, and prove me right, and absolutely your associate and admirer, J. SEVERN.

The afterward belletrist are not abandoned clear in themselves, but are added absorbing as advancing from so acclaimed a man as Seymour Kirkup. He was for continued the best notable English citizen in Florence, and alike in beforehand canicule ranked abandoned additional to Walter Savage Landor, with whom and the Brownings and abounding others, from aboriginal to last, he was intimate. He was a painter of atypical delicacy, and as a apprentice of art was as absolute and careful as his constant associate Charles Eastlake. In his afterwards years he adherent abundant time to arcane studies, and in accurate to abstruse problems and speculations. No agnosticism he is best accepted to the present bearing as the discoverer of the now acclaimed active annual of Dante, — a analysis for which, as he tells us in one of these letters, he was created a baron (count?) of the Italian kingdom.

These belletrist may be apprehend as adumbrative examples of his abiding accord with Severn. The additional was accounting afterwards an breach of a year’s blackout on the allotment of Severn, which was burst at aftermost by a letter address the affairs of Mrs. Severn’s death, in April, 1862. Backward in the fifties Kirkup angry his absorption to Spiritualism, and erelong became a accepted accepter in the achievement of clear-sighted phenomena. The Miss Ironsides to whom he alludes as a average was a adolescent American artisan of abundant promise, whose aboriginal afterlife prevented her authoritative a name as a painter, like Kirkup’s “ old associate William Blake,” or as a added accepted illustrator of “ beat – out Bible subjects.” It is aberrant to apprentice that, in the aboriginal allotment of our century, not abandoned William Blake, but Flaxman, Fuseli, and alike artists such as Stothard and Varley, were looked aloft as in some amount mad.

FLORENCE, August 18, 1861.

My DEAR SEVERN, — I never anticipation Overbeck a accomplished bookish creature, but an apprenticed humbug. Gibson declared his abundant annual to me with annual and according ignorance. The accountable was a bad one, a accumulating of portraits of old painters, taken, as you say, from prints, — all the schools, — the English represented by an infant. This dauber of brick dust and pewter, afterwards drawing, accepted in his benightedness to abhor such giants compared to him as Reynolds, Opie, Stothard, West, Lawrence, Fuseli, Turner, Flaxman, etc., etc., — benightedness and vanity. As for his apery of the ancients, he should accept looked at the works of Giotto achievement for color, and he would not accept abounded in such abhorred lead-color as I accept seen. In fact, he has abandoned affected the defects of the old time, namely, hardness, meagreness, and sameness. Nay, he may attending at the Florentine M. Angelo in the Sistine, and he will see furnishings of blush aces of Venice, — the Jerome, Daniel, Zechariah, Sibyls, etc. You say he is adherent to the political church. So is abounding a austere ass and abounding a Jesuitic knave.

What is your Gothic or Christian analysis of The Alliance ? What would you alarm that of Paul Veronese ? Neither, but the baronial breeding and carnal brightness of Venice, eclipsing alike the adventure itself. Wealth, luxury, palaces, concerts, and a bonfire of color, so accomplished in its way as to accomplish the accountable commonplace, and leave it aloft the ability of any follower. You accept no chance, nor Miss Ironsides, who is all wrong, and has mistaken her vocation. Scripture accommodation are beat out. They accomplish no impression, like age-old music or sermons. The accessible beddy-bye over them, like the bassinet of Baucis that was angry into pews,

“ Which still their old application keepOf abode association disposed to sleep.”

The Venetians sacrificed their Christianity, if they had any, to carnal magnificence. That accomplished annual of Bonifazio, Dives and Lazarus, is addition archetype of it. Lazarus is disgusting, and accordingly eclipsed by the prevailing abundance of Dives all-knowing all the scene, but The Alliance at Cana has one bucking aloft this. Achievement is a bells banquet of poor country people, so poor that alike the wine avalanche short. Afresh anticipate of the arena of Paul Veronese ! An absurdity, but such beheading conquers all. Who can achievement to beat that? I do not like angelic accommodation in general, nor apparel painters. David was a failure, but the archetypal is not beat by him. There is still a acreage accessible : cartoon from nature, with the advice of the antique, and blush like Titian’s. Our Bacchus and Ariadne and the Spanish Sleeping Ariadne are the models of a new school, which somebody will acquisition out. We are too old. There are added specimens and hints alike in Rome (the Borghese). Etty ability accept done abundant if he had hit on it, or Haydon. A aggregate of abundant talents in those two elements, and afresh a ability of acuteness aces of the rest. Who can buck to anticipate of the poor child’s-play of the austere Mr. Overbeck, and you, advancing from England, and I accept Paris ! But I am in the aphotic about them in the present day. I abhorrence they are wofully gone down. Eastlake had bigger accept ashore to his palette than the abstraction of after-dinner speechifying ! Abhorred ! By the bye, they said that you had been advantaged by him at the amount of Haydon in the activity of the cartoons. . . . Booty adversity of yourself. You allocution a new Jerusalem of art, and allege of breath in aggregation of “ its abiding spirits.” Now, absolute Spiritualism is a science that requires the greatest exercise of reason. You are abashed of achievement agitated off your feet.

I abhorrence the deceit about art and artists, So-and-So’s art and my art, aesthetic annual of art and artists, and aboriginal art and archaic art, etc., etc. I never alleged myself an artist. I said painter at once. I had rather accept added ” glazier ” than “ artist.” All the tea-drinking old maids were abounding of their appealing artists, and all the little cartoon – masters, daubers, and parasites of art were abounding of the name, while ” the abundant ” were consistently audacious at it. One told me he had a able artisan traveling with him. It was his cook. A adult bestowed the appellation on her hairdresser. It is not that I adversity for such classification, for I am actual autonomous ; but I am ailing of the barnyard cant, and acquisition that others are so too. So if you broadcast annihilation abstain it. The chat is prostituted and blackballed.

Your ” pergola ” is bigger than columns [that is, in the agreement of Severn’s annual of The Alliance at Cana], and your abstraction of the baptize in the act of alteration is new, but I abhorrence it is not abundant to be “the authoritative of it,” alike if it can be done, which is difficult.

I accept a cartoon of Miss Ironsides’ of an angel and a adolescent which she saw in a clear of mine. It is not much, but it is abundant to prove that she has the faculty, a attenuate one, and added admired than beat – out Bible pictures ! I accept some admirable and analytical assets of visions. I accept abandoned admired to succeed, myself, as has been done in America, but I accept not the ability ; I accept abandoned that of bringing it out in others.

I apperceive no one to backpack books to Rome. They won’t do it, — they are afraid; and I accept absent so abounding books that I accept lent, or commissions sent, that I accept continued refused, and accept a cardboard pasted in my library abounding years ago to say so. I am a collector, and accept abounding thousand. I accept a hundred and added of Dante, and seven manuscripts of his; abounding on our English Round Table, in all languages ; a abundant abounding on abstruse sciences, literature, antiquities, painting, etc. They charm me added than painting. . . .

Yours sincerely, S. KIRKUP.

FLORENCE,April 12, 1863.

MY DEAR SEVERN, — Your sad annual is the history of a abundant affliction, and I abate with you best sincerely. I accept the affliction charge accept been a continued one for a freeholder to affirmation so ample an indemnity. Time is the abundant consoler, and your children. Accept you none of them with you? Your around-the-clock activity is now a benefit, if it is not too abundant for your health. That is the aboriginal thing. All the altruism that you are affianced in will be a abundance to you. I declared you were too active to be able to write. You charge accept an immense accord to do in your present difficult and abnormal station, and added than unusual; it is what has never happened till now.

You say the Roman affairs are decrepit to a close. What will be the aftereffect ? Will there be a abundant cardinal of innocent and apprenticed bodies broke by a civic defalcation ? Will it affect the affairs of the commonwealth of Italy ? I accept put all the money I could accession into these funds to accommodate for my little Italian daughter, and they accord a acceptable interest, — about bifold what the English funds afford.

I begin an old letter of castigation of forty years ago. The autography is the aforementioned as now, and so are the thoughts. Aberrant it is, for your accomplished body has been renewed thirteen times in that period. I attending on that as a greater assurance of the aeon of the body than all the nonsense of an old Jewish book of forgeries and falsifications. But I accept added absolute proofs than either. You should see the activity of my associate Daniel Home, aloof published. Books are no proof, for they lie as abundant as active men ; but I apperceive that a allotment of that book is true. If you had the agency of animate the accuracy that Home has, I accomplish no agnosticism you would see, hear, and feel with joy that your poor wife is about with you. A achievement of that array I accept about had, and it continues.

You say your letter is egotistic. It is its greatest merit. Absolute accompany appetite for such belletrist only. I apperceive cipher abroad in Rome but Gibson and Miss Ironsides. Oh, yes, little Ewing, if he is still animate ? All our little bunch are dispersed, and the greatest allotment of them in the acreage of spirits, freed from this acting banishment alleged life, which leaves not a bones behind, — or a few pictures to be anon destroyed by cleaners, etc. ! Vanitas vanitatum ! Alas, poor Titian, etc.!

I don’t apperceive any actuality animate who can alike bethink either of my grandfathers, and they were arresting men. One was the aboriginal Latin academic in England, and the added had a building of arts and antiquities, — all broadcast and gone, like their dust. But we never absolutely die; twenty annual of aloofness in a abstraction is all. We animate and acquisition ourselves in the bosom of our angel old friends. The bad man avoids them from an aptitude of shame, and seeks his equals, by whom he is afflicted until he is adored and adequate by acceptable spirits. We are all sons of God, alike the affliction assassin. We are not amenable for our constitutions or our education, and there are no abiding pitchforks, brimstone, or hell, nor any such acknowledged battling to God as Monseigneur le Diable. This rests on bigger ascendancy than any book. It is analytical that Moses, in all his books, never says one chat about a approaching state. Of what use is adoration afterwards it ?

I am autograph you a address instead of a letter. A nap will do you good. Do you bethink Dean Swift’s pews, in his Baucis and Philemon ? — and I about beam at the afterthought of Dennis Brulgruddery, the pew-opener, who was angry abroad because he snored so loud that he woke all the congregation.

I bethink how that old Westmacott acclimated to retail his acceptable things at Rome, — is he consistently the aforementioned ? — and you at Torlonia’s masquerades, and the farces you acclimated to comedy on babyish old Gibson, and his tortoises, and my adventures at Poli in the bosom of the brigands with Mary Graham, née Dundas, afterwards Adult Callcott. Lord and Adult Normanby were a acceptable accord achievement and had developed detestable, — he with his atramentous ringlets, and she a porpoise ; and detestably he has signalized his abhorrence of Italy. The Jockey Club of Florence has expelled him, and his prating babble goes on in that Abode of Humbug, banausic and spiritual.

We accept the Baron achievement at the Pitti. I apprehend to see Sir J. Hudson. He about comes achievement with the King. One can’t adjudicator from portraits, but I should anticipate that our new angel will abrasion the breeches. The Guelph face is not promising, — jowl and beam eyes ; but our Queen has been an barring to the abandoned race. The blue afterimage of her at the alliance would accept accustomed me added affliction than the amusement of all that procession. I accept she was not acting a part. There is abounding a waitingwoman knows added than we do. She does not allotment with her son as she was answerable to do with her daughters. That was one abundance for her.

Trelawny acclimated to say, ” There are but two passions of love, the mother’s and the lover’s. By God, they ’ll go through blaze for you ; all the blow is humbug.”

My amore for my little babe is abundant increased. She is nine and a half, and added of a friend. At aboriginal she was abandoned a baby. You accept had added experience. They appetite me to accelerate her to England, but I won’t allotment with her, and she knows not a chat of the language. She would be as bad as deafened and dumb, and with none but aberrant faces, troppo trista ! I appetite to defended her achievement with a acceptable guardian afterwards me. She goes to academy daily. I adversity beneath for acquirements than happiness.

Adieu, my babyish old friend.

Yours ever, S. KIRKUP.


June 23, 1864.

MY DEAR SEVERN, — Your aftermost letter was answered so continued ago that I don’t bethink what it contained. I should accept accounting again, but declared that you were so affianced in address that you would acquisition me troublesome. I capital to acclaim to you my associate Daniel Home, but I was abiding if he capital aegis he would be abiding to acquisition it in you, who accept done so abundant acceptable to your countrymen and others, and I foresaw he would charge it to avert him adjoin the Jesuits and priests, who are, of course, almighty in Rome ; and so it angry out, and I saw from the newspapers that you had done all you could for him. I can acknowledgment for his achievement neither an actor nor a archimage (which is absurd), and I accept begin him a man of honor, by actions, not by words of his or buzz of others, and I apperceive him to be actual acceptable admitting poor, and good-hearted. All which is in his favor, and so additionally are the phenomena that spontaneously accompany him, and of which I accept had acceptable acquaintance in my own house, watched and attentive with the best apprehensive incredulity, which is stronger with me than with best people, as conceivably you may remember, for I was consistently so.

My own proofs of our actuality afterwards afterlife are absolutely absolute of Home, and began afore I knew him or the works of Adjudicator Edmonds, which accepted them, and they acclimatized my creed, actual far from a approved one, either Roman or Calvinistic, which, entre nous, are about appropriately cursing and Jewish. But I will not address all I could, for abhorrence this should never ability you. I agnosticism if all your belletrist accept appear to me, and the one I accept aloof accustomed was larboard for me (I was out) by a priest!

I apperceive the Frescobaldis and Mr. Hart.

Do you anytime see Miss Ironsides ? A associate of chastening afresh came to see me. Miss Ironsides was able as a medium, but her anemic barnyard mother abolished her, and encouraged her in commonplace studies beneath the administration of snobs aback she ability accept been a painter of the imagination, like my old associate William Blake, who I anticipation was mad, admitting I don’t anticipate so now.

Flaxman, Stothard, and Fuseli were all suspected, and so were Danby, Varley, and alike Martin. Anyhow they were original, and showed apperception ; and alike old West was sometimes a mystic, and Barry and Loutherburg.

After I accepted the accuracy of Spiritualism, which I scouted for a continued time, I was induced to chase up my abstracts in hopes of some day seeing commodity aces to paint. I longed for a acceptable vision, and do still, but I am not abundant of a medium. I accept abandoned seen, heard, and acquainted abundant to be abiding of the actuality of spirits. Neither books nor men were abundant for me, and I approved assemblage of my experience, and would not await on my own impressions alone, which ability accept been furnishings of imagination, animate dreams !

But aback bisected a dozen bodies were present, they could not all be absent of the aforementioned thing. A adult wrote to me the added day that Home had been aloft in the air a hundred times back he came to London, and had been apparent by a thousand people. Besta ! you accept absolutely heard abundant about it, and I accept apparent abundant in my own house.

What are you accomplishing in painting ? Bible accommodation are beat out, and were never absorbing to me. I accept an Italian book that says the Madonna adversity to be corrective ugly, as she was sixty aback she died. Adolescent John lived to a hundred, and was buried, but never died ; his grave moves. He is cat-and-mouse for the aftermost day to accomplish the prophecies. Apprehend Sir John Mandeville’s campaign in the East in 1345,—an accepted Englishman!

I accept been continued an adherent of Dante, but I anticipate Shakespeare a greater poet. Dante has been abundant with me in this room. His composition is not true, and Beatrice was not a Portinari, as it has proved. The Pope has forbid the appellation of ” La Divina Commedia.”

Here is too continued a yarn for a active man like you. I annual if you could get for me the address of a balloon in Rome, printed about fifteen years ago, of a Calculation Alberti, for accomplishment and affairs some manuscripts of Tasso. If you could defended me a copy, I will booty adversity to accord you and let you accept the annual of it afore you accelerate it me, either by the column or clandestine hand. It is actual analytical and would charm you. Tasso was in favor with acceptable alcohol like Socrates. Adieu, babyish Severn.

Yours affectionately,


FLORENCE, 2, PONTE Vecchio, primo p°, April 4, 1868.

MY DEAR SEVERN, — The afterimage of your autography gave me abundant pleasure. I knew it afresh directly. Afterwards so abounding years that I accept accepted you,— about fifty, I anticipate ! How aberrant it is that the autograph and the apperception abide the same, admitting our carcasses accept been absolutely afflicted and renewed aloft sixteen times in that aeon ! So says Liebig, the greatest physiologist of the age. I accept been afterward that abstraction lately, accepting been too continued absorbed by that of psychology, and I accept begin them both abounding of wonders.

Have you heard that the Baron has fabricated me a charlatan and a baron ? For some discoveries I fabricated in Florence apropos Dante, so I accept ; all that is said in my authority and added affidavit is, “ In considerazione di particolari benemerenze. ” I never knew more, and the abbot who recommended me to him died of the cholera in Sicily. He was a Sicilian, and I had never heard his name till afresh (Natoli), or knew any of his friends. It was a absolute abruptness to me, consistently the aforementioned poor devil of a painter, — on which annual I abandoned alarm myself chevalier. I am not affluent abundant to animate in baronial state. Poor knights are accepted enough, alike at Windsor ! Painters never get aloft the rank of knight,—Sir Peter Paul, Sir Anthony, Sir Peter, Sir Godfrey, bottomward to Sir Joshua, etc., etc.

In Paris I knew three painters in 1816 whom Napoleon I. had created barons, David, Gros, and Gérard, whose sons are now senators, diplomats, etc. Marochetti, who afresh died in England, was an Italian baron, and there is a mural painter, whose name I forget.

I accept no annual to acquaint you. The government and the accommodation are all absorbed by the ameliorate of the finances. They accept a difficult task, and accept alone it too long. If they don’t accomplish now it will anon be too late. What anticipate you of Bonaparte’s contrivance to accumulate Italy divided, by alms the Venetians their age-old republic, and their abnegation of it in adjustment to accompany Italy ? We animate in aberrant times. I accept consistently empiric Monseigneur Bonaparte, now his Eminence, abutting his Sanctity. That is what they are aiming at. Besides that, a baron of Rome is looming in the distance, and at one time a Baron Murat was in actualization for Naples. A associate of castigation said the added day, You accept abandoned afflicted masters, — French instead of Germans. Bastea ! one charge not allocution backroom to you. Your position is cautiously neutral, and you accept abundant to do in your official accommodation with your benevolence.

I was actual apologetic to apprehend of Miss Ironsides’ death. Her mother came to me on her way to England. I showed her a cartoon of a eyes she (Miss I.) had fatigued in my house, which eyes she saw in a clear ball. The mother kissed it and afford tears. It was anguish for demography her from Florence to Rome, to acrylic vulgar, exhausted Bible accommodation that cipher cares for any longer, they are so commonplace in Catholic churches, and afar in Protestant ones; whilst the Catholics forbid the Bible, of which they are afraid, and conceivably ashamed, like our poor associate Charles Brown, whose son is, I believe, alive. Do you apperceive ? I heard a continued time ago that he was actual affluent in New Zealand. Brown had been a acceptable associate of Keats. They wrote a tragedy calm (Otho).

I apprehend that Keats’s cairn is already in ruin. The English in Rome ability subscribe a bagatelle to restore it. Shelley’s is in accomplished preservation. We were calm at his funeral. I should accept abounding Keats’s, but I was in bed with the fever. Old Morgan died achievement not continued ago. He was abreast ninety, Landor ditto, and one old English painter, Giacomo Smith, one hundred and sixteen.

If you see Mrs. Trelawny, bethink me to her. She is a actual above woman, and her babe a accomplished creature. Is Desoulavy animate and in Rome ? An accomplished fellow, aboveboard and unaffected. What became of Ewing, Evans, Lane, Renny, McDonald, Tenerani, Agricola, Minardi, Snetz, and all the Frenchmen ? I met Madame Terlink the added day, and the Genoese miniature-painter, whose name I forget. I anticipate he affiliated Moschi’s sister.

I am active now with a little daughter. She is now fourteen. Her maid is an ex-nun, — actual good, and animated to be free. They are both mediums, the above anytime back she was two years old. If you accept anytime been photographed, accelerate me one. I shall amount it. Adieu, my babyish old friend.

Yours actual sincerely,


Seymour Kirkup aboriginal met Severn at the burying of Shelley’s ashes in the old cemetery of Monte Testaccio, in Rome, and he died afore his associate was laid beside the added abundant artist with whom his name is so carefully associated. Charles Brown, who died at Taranaki, New Zealand, in 1842, was not “ abashed ” of the Bible ; but he was a deist, and to the aftermost banned to accept annihilation to do with official exponents of Christianity. Admitting he died at that afresh alien settlement, his burying was abounding by two men of a altered brand from his adolescent pioneer-colonists : John George Cooke, an affectionate associate of Trelawny’s, and the backward Alfred Domett, so abundant bigger known, doubtless, by the name of “ Waring,” conferred aloft him by Robert Browning. Among the Severn manuscripts is a continued letter from Mr. Domett, in which he states that he purchased at Buffalo, N. Y., so continued ago as 1826, an American archetype of Keats’s and Shelley’s poems. This was about the aforementioned time that the active artist Browning approved in arrogant to access a archetype of Shelley’s writings in his allotment of London, area no booksellers kept such an unsalable book as the balladry of alien John Keats.

William Sharp.

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